1. While this report is intended to be a broad overview appropriate for a nonlegal audience, attention is given to appropriate citations where those sources may be useful to assist in further research by the Law Department.

2. National Sporting Goods Association (2000)- printed in the Philadelphia Inquirer, March 27, 2002. Participation in skateboarding has risen 102% since 1995 according to the NGSA.

3. National Safety Council (1999)- printed in the Philadelphia Inquirer, March 27, 2002. Football- 19.6 million participants with 18.8 injuries per 1,000 participants. Soccer- 13.2 million participants with 13.3 injuries per 1,000 participants. Skateboarding (1999 figures)- 7 million participants with 8.6 injuries per 1,000 participants.

4. 68 P.S. 477-1 (1999)("The purpose of this act is to encourage owners of land to make land and water areas available to the public for recreational purposes by limiting their liability toward persons entering thereon for such purposes.").

5. Goldstein, Debra Wolf. The Recreation Use of Land and Water Act: Lory v. City of Philadelphia, 35 Duquesne L. Rev. 783, 785 (1997)(referring to the public policy behind RUA," [c]ommunities have…turned to a variety…of means for making open space lands available to the public, including adopting state recreational use laws that limit tort liability of landowners who make their lands available to the public for recreational uses free of charge [emphasis added].").

6. 68 P.S. §477-2 (1999)("’LAND’ means land, roads, water, watercourses, private ways and buildings, structures and machinery or equipment when attached to the realty.").

7. Manning, William L., TORT LAW — MUNICIPALITIES' IMMUNITY UNDER THE RECREATION USE OF LAND AND WATER ACT: A DEATH KNELL — WALSH v. CITY OF PHILADELPHIA, 585 A.2D 445 (Pa.1991), Temple L. Rev. (Summer 1992). Renwand, Sandra M., Note: BEYOND COMMONWEALTH v. AURESTO: WHICH PROPERTY IS PROTECTED BY THE RECREATION USE OF LAND AND WATER ACT?, Pitt L. Rev. (Fall 1987). Goldstein, Debra Wolf, supra (1997).

8. Goldstein at 798-800 ("Bill 219 [the amendment to broaden the definition of ‘recreation land’] encourages governments to offer recreational facilities to the greatest number of people possible in both urban and rural settings. It promotes the economic benefits that result from recreation-based tourism.").

9. There have been no definitional amendments made to the RUA as of 2001.

10. Lory v. City of Philadelphia, 674 A.2d 673 (Pa.1996).

11. Goldstein at 783.

12. Goldstein at 797.

13. Colwell, W. Bradley, RECREATIONAL PROPERTY AND INJURIES: "PLAYING" WITH GOVERNMENTAL TORT IMMUNITY, Illinois Bar Journal 654 (December 1999)(The Illinois Act reads,"[n]either a local public entity nor a public employee is liable for an injury where the liability is based on the existence of a condition of any public property intended or permitted to be used for recreational purposes, including but not limited to parks, playgrounds [italics added], open areas, buildings or other enclosed recreational facilities, unless such local entity or public employee is guilty of willful and wanton conduct proximately causing such injury.").

14. Goldstein at 786, n.16 (a listing of similar recreational use statutes from 48 other states).

15. McCalla, John,"X Games Hope For A Smoother 02" Philadelphia Business Journal (Aug. 24, 2001)("The state of Pennsylvania provided the funding for the $1.2 million Philadelphia bid to host the X games in 2001 and 2002.").

16. 68 P.S. §477-6 (1999)("Nothing in this act limits…liability which otherwise exists…[f]or injury suffered in any case where the owner of land charges…for recreational use thereof.").

17. Rinehart, Tammy, Tackling Youth Disorder in Danvers, Mass., U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (1999).

18. Rinehart at 4.