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New England Courant
New England Courant

Issue 41


From Monday May 7. to Monday May 14. 1722.
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Courant

An sum etiam nume vel Grace loqui vel Latine docendus?
Cicero.

To the Author of the New-England Courant.

SIR,
DISCOURSING the other Day at Dinner with my Reverend Boarder. formerly mentioed'd, (whom for Distinction sake we will call by the Name of Clericus,) concerning the Education of Children, I ask'd his Advice about my young Son William, whether or no I had best bestow up-on him Academical Learning or (as our Phase is) bring him up at our College: He perfwaded me to do it by all Means, using many weighty Arguments with me, and answering all the Objections that he did not doubt but it; telling me withal, that he did not doubt but that the Lad would take his Leaning very well, and hot idle away his Time as too many there now-a-days do. There Words of Clericus gave me a Curiosity to inquire a little more strictly into the present Circumitances [Illegible sentence] but the Information which he gave me, was neither pleasent, nor such as I expected.

As soon as Dinner was over, I took a solitary Walk into my Orchard, still ruminating on clericui's Discourse with much Consideration, until I came to my useful Place of Retirement under the Great Apple-Tree; where having seated my seated my self, and carelessly laid my Head on a verdant Bank, I fell by Degress into a soft and undisturbed Slummer. My waking Thoughts remained with me in my Sleep, and before I awak'd again, I dreamt the following DREAM.

I FANCY'D I was travelling over pleasent and delightful Fields and Meadows, and thro' many small Country Towns and Villages; and as I pass'd along , all Places refounded with the Fame of the Temple of LEARNING: Every Present, who had wherewithal, was preparing to send one of his Children at least to this famous Place; and in this Cafe most of them consulted their own Purses instead of their Childrens Capacities: So that I observed, a great many, yea, the most part of those who were travelling thither thither, were little better than Dunces and Blockheads. Alas! alas!

At length I entered upon a Spacious Plan, in the Midst of which was erected a large and stately Edisice: It was to this that a great Company of Youths from all Parts of the Country were going; so Stepping in among the Crowd, I passed on with them, and presently arrived at the Gate.

THE Passage was kept by two sturdy Porters named Riches and Poverty, and the latter obstinately refused to give Entrance to any who had not first gain'd the Favour of the former; so that I observed, many who came even to the very Gate, were obliged to travel back again as ignorant as they came, for want of this necessary Qualification. However as a Spectator I gain'd Admittance, and with the rest entred directly into the Temple.

IN the Middle of the great Hall stood a stately

 

and Magnificant Throne, which was ascnded to by two high and different Steps. On the Top of it fat LEARNING in awful State; she was apparelled wholly in Black, and surrounded almost on every Side with innumerable Volumes in all Languages. She seem'd very busily employ'd in writing something on half a sheet of Paper, and upon Enquity, I understood she was preparing a Paper, call'd, The New-England Courant. On her Right Hand sat English, with a Plearant smiling Countenance, and handsomely attir'd; and on her left were seated several Antique Figures with their Faces vail'd. I was confiderably puzzl'd to guess who they were, until one informed me, (who stood beside me,) that those Figures on her left Hand were Latin; Greek, Hebrew, &c. and that they were very much reserv'd, and seldom or never unvarl'd their Faces here, and then to few or none, tho' most of those who have in this Place acquir'd so much Learning as to distingush them from English, pretended to an inimate Acquaintance with them. I then enquir'd of him, what could be the Reason why they continued Vail'd, in this Place especially: He pointed to the Foot of the Throne, where I saw Idleness, attended with Ignorance, and there ( he informed me) were they, who first vail'd them, and still kept them so.

NOW I observed, that the whole Tribe who en-[Illegible sentence] began to climb the Throne; but the Work Proving troublesome and different to most of them, they Withdrew their Hannds from the Plow, and contented themselves to fit at the Foot, with Madam Idleness and her Maid Ignorance, until those who were assisted by Diligence and a docible Temper, had well nigh got up the first step: But the Time drawing nigh in which they could no way avoid ascending, they were sain to crave the Assistance of those who had got up before them, and whho, for the Reward perhaps of a Pint of Milk, or a Piece of Plumb-Cake, lent the Lubbers a helping Hand, and fat them in the Eye of The World upon a Level with themselves.

THE other Step being in the same Manner a scended, the usual Ceremonies at an End, every Beetle-scull seem'd well satisfy'd with his own Portion of Learning, Tho' perhaps he was e'en just as ignorant as ever. And Now The Time of their Departure being come, they march'd out of Doors to make Room for another Company, who waited for Entrance: And I, having seen all that was to be seen, quitted the Hall likewise, and went to make my Observations on those who were just gone out before me.

SOME I perceiv'd took to Merchandizing, others to Traveing. Some to one Thing, some to another, and some to Nothing: and Many Of them from henceforth, for want of Pattimony, Liv'd as poor as Church Mice, being unable to dig, and asham'd to beg, and to live by their Witts it was impossilble. But the most Part of the Crowd went along a large beaten Path, which led to a Temple at the further End of the Plain, call'd. The Temple of Theology. The Business of those who were employ'd in this Temple being labourious painful, I wonder'd exceedingly to see so many go towards it; but while I was pondering this Matter in my Mind, I spy'd Pecura behind a Curtain, beckoning to them with her Hand, which Sight immediately satisfy'd me for whose Sake it was, that a great Part them (I will

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not say all) travel'd that Road. In this This I say nothing wprth mentioning, except the ambitious and Fraudulent Contrivances of Plagius; who (notwithstanding he had been severely reprehended for such Practices before) was, diligently: transcribing some eloguent Paragraphs our of Tillotson's Works &c. to embellish his own.

NOW I bethought my self in my Sleep that it was Time to be at Home, and as I fancy'd I was travelling back thither, I reslected in my Mind on the extream Folly of those parents, who, blind to their Childrens Dulness, and insenible of the Solity of their Skulls, because they think their Purses can afford it, will needs send them to the Temple of Learning, where, for want of a suitable Genius, they learn little more than how to carry themselves handsomely, amd enter a Room genteely, ( which might as well be acquir'd at a Dancing-School,) and from whence they retur, after Abundance of Trouble and Charge as great Blockheads as ever, only more proud and self conceited.

WHILE I was in the midst of there unpleasant Reslection, Clericus ( Who with a Book in his Hand was walking under the Tree) accidentally awak'd me; to him I related my Dream with all its presently interpreted it, assuring me, That it was a lively Representation of HARVARD COLLEGE, Etcetera.
I remain, Sir,
Your Humble Servant,
SILENCE DOGOOD.

To the Author of the New-England Courant.

SIR, Woodstock, 1722.
This comes to thank you for your last Kindness. Indeed you a done it to the Life: but I profess I am sorry to find there are People among us who can be guilty of such unworthy Actions as are mentioned in your [Illegible sentence] my Neighbours, what great Pity it would be if such base People should have Posts in the Governments for surely, said I, if they were worthy, they would be regarded for their Worth; but he that can be guity of such sorry Methods to bring himself into a Place, does it not for the sake of the Publick, but for himself, and himself only will he serve, be it in Pride, Covetousness, Revenge, or any other Passion. Why truly, Neighbor Trueman, says an hearty Old Charter-man, (who had been at College,) you are in The Right; and it is a dreadful thing when wicked

People can obtain their unjustly Desires by such underhand Practices, as the very Heathens would have adhorred: For how many noble Romans that had not the Light of the Gospel, have left to Posterity such Actions as might serve to Shame the Professors of Christianity from Practices so Mean and vile. It was not (continued he) by such Methods that Fabitous Pistor and his Colleague, obtain'd to be sent Ambassadors from the Roman State to Ptolemy Philadelphus King of Egypt; for with Minds as great as self-denying, they put off every thing from themselves that might tend to their own proper Interest: For when King Ptolemy, having invited them to Supper with him, presented them in the Conclusion of the Enterainment with Crowns of Gold, ( and such we all know are as tempting as Gold Dust,) they accepted of the Crowns for the sake of the Honour that was done them thereby ; but the next Morning they crown'd with them the Statues of the King which stood in the Publick Places of the City: And being presented with very valuable Giifts From the King, they accepted of them that they might not disgust him by the Refusal; but as soon as they were return'd to Rome, they deliver'd them all into the publick Treasury, before they appear'd in the Senate to give an Account of the their embassy; declaring thereby, that they desir'd no other advantage from the Service of the Publick, than the Ho-

 

nour of discharging it well. And this was the general Temper and inclination of the Romans in those Times, which made them prosper in all their Undertaking. But afterward, when the Service of the Publick was only desir'd in order to plunder it, and Men enterer'd on the Employments of the State, with no other View or Intent but to enrich themselves and advance their own private Fortunes, no Wonder then that Things began to go backward with them: And so it must happen with all States, when the publick Interest is Sacrificed to that of private Men, and the Office and Employment of the State are desired only to gratisy the Ambition, and glut the Avarice of them that can get into them.

This Discourse was attended to with a Satisfaction to all present, which the old Man Perceiving, goes on, We have (says he) the choice of Representatives at hand, let us therefore resolve, that neither Hope of Gain or Fear of Displease shall move us to vote for such as will become Wax to receive every Impression the Enemies of our Constitution shall think fit to make on them: Nor let us, like Esau, sell our most valuable Priviledges for Triftes. What will the Offspring of Ensign Pliant and Sergeant Supple have Reason to say hereafter? Why truly, that their Parent, for the imaginary Honour of carrying a Pair of Colours and a Halbert, have brought them into Bondage: For so soon as they were advanced, they became Creatures to the Major their Master, who is one of those Implements of Wax I was speaking of; and as he is himself a Tool and a Property to another, (for the sake of Preserment,) so he expects the same in all others, for whom he does the least Service. This ( continu'd he) was evident in what past between year cous [llegible] James Trueman (directing to me) and himself. The Matter was thus; Major Ball-Face (for by that Name he is well enough Known) had wrote one or two in Favour of James that he might get a Licence Soon after followed the Election of Resentatives, when James put his Vote into the Hat of the Ma [Illegible sentence] It happen'd that the Paper was remarkable by being bloody, occasioned by James's cut Finger; so that when young Capt. Ball-Face ( alias Select Man) open'd the Paper, he found James had voted for the Truemans The Major was soon inform'd of this, and afterwards meeting with James. he in an angry and reproachful Manner demands of him, how he could be so base, after the Service he had done him to vote for another. To Which James answer'd, That for what Service he had done him, he thank'd him, and would at all Times endeavour to make a suitable Return; but he never thought, When his Honour was at the Trouble of writing a Line in his behalf, that by that he was obliged to give him in lieu Thereof the greatest Priviledge he had. The Major finding him justify himself, upbraided poor James with ingratitude to such a Degree, as plainly shews what Expectations they have from those to whom they do the least Service. And therefore, whensoever those Understrappers are solliciting in behalf of their Riders, let us be upon our Guard, lest they ride us too. Let us consider how it will be with us, if a haughty, covetous, revengeful Man should get in Power, he may wheedle us to choose his Relations and Tools into Places of Trust, by a specious Pretence of Piety, in giving a Piece of Plate to the Church, and making large Promises of doing Justice to all; but when his Sycophants are at hand to support him, if he should invest Justice by drawing up an Indictment against any one of us, and be a JUDGE of it himself; or if he or his Relations should think fit to assault us, and we for defending our selves shall be prosecuted for it, and try'd by him; if he should take upon him to examine such Matters as no way belong to him, and is directly an Infringement of our Priviledges. If, I say, such an one should attempt to do any or all of Things, what may we not expect he will do to gratify his Desires.

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The Old Man concluded, That if we approved of what he had spoken, he would Pen it down, and I might send it to you to print, if you thought fit, To which we all agreed, and so I have sent it to
Yours, Yours, Sir,
Yours,
ELISHA TRUEMAN.

To the Author of the New-England Couirant.

SIR,
The Times are certainly very bad, when Men can hardly rise to Preferment and be honest; and When honest Men are oblig'd to decline of Honour and Profit, for fear of being reputed Knaves.

When Men get into Places of Trust by fly Insinuations, by Frowns, Flatteries, and other base Arts, it is An Argument that they have very little Merit to recommend them to the People's Esteem. And when Men ( covetouus Men Especially ) endeavour to advance themselves by Gifts, it is a Strong Proof that they design to pay themselves by an un just Improvement of their Places, tho' at the Expense of those who have promoted them. No covetous Person will use more Water to fetch the Pump, than be designs to pump out again.

Roxbury May 7.
The Posture of Affairs in this Town of late, has been easy and promising; thro' the Extract from the Votes of the House of Representataives publishes this Day, has occasion'd great Speculation among us.

'Tis said our first Church has receiv'd a Present of a fine Piece of Plate, from a noted Family among us, which appear'd on the Communion Table Yesterday. Whether the Motive to this Gift, in such a critical Juncture, was a Principle of Generosity, or something else, has been Matter of great Debate; but I think it prudent to wave the Determination of this Point, and leave People to think as they Please. [Illegible sentence]

This Day William Esq; was chosen Representative for this Town.

Portsmouth, May 5.
It is [Illegible] that Butter is so scarce in this Place, that none could be procur'd for the Entertainment of his Excellency the Governour.

Boston, May 10.
Next Tuesday is the Time appointed for our Election of Resentatives. 'Tis hop'd The Eyes of the Town will be fix'd on honest Men, and friends to their Country

Square, Whether those, Gentleman who held up their Hands in the House, for the Payment of Mr. E----r's Money; are fit for Representatives?

Square, Whether one who gives no Account of Mony appropriated by Law to purchase Arms and Ammunition for the Town's Use, be fit to serve the Town in that Station?

To the Author of the New-England Courant.

SIR.
By the late Act for supplying Great Britain with Naval Stores from the Plantations, I find we are restrain'd from selling White Pine Trees, and an Admiralty Court is vested with a Power to try Offenders for Facts committed to the Land. The Act contains several other Matters of great Confequence to North America, but more especially to us here in New-England. If you have Rooms, I desire you to insert in your next the the following Extract from the London Journal, which will oblige Your Humble Servant, &c.

'The Mischiefs that are daily done, and the Evils that are daily suffered in the World are sad Proofs how much human Malice exceeds humans Wisdom. Law only Provides against the Evils which it knows or foresee; but when Laws fail, we must have recourse to Reason and Nature, which are the only Guides in the making of Laws. Stirpem Furis a

 

Natura repsrtam, says Cioero: There never would have been any Law against any Crime, if Crimes might have been safely committed, against which there was no Law: For every Law supposes some Evil, and can only punish or restrain the Evils which already exist.

But as positive Laws, let them be ever so full and perspicuous, can never intirely prevent the Arts of crafty Men to evade them, or the Power of great Ones to violate them, hence new Laws are daily making and new Occasions for more are daily So that the utmost that Wisdom, Virtue, and Law can do, is to lessen on or qualify, but never totally abolish Vice and Enormity. Law is therefore a sign of the Corruption of Man; and many Laws are Signs of the Corruption of a State.

Positive Laws deriving their Force from the Law of Nature, by which we are directed to make occasional Rules, which we call Laws, according to the Exigencies of Times, places and Persons, grow obsolete as soon as they sease to be necessary: And it is as much against the Law of Nature to excute Laws, when the first Cause of them ceases, as it is to make Laws, for which there is no Cause, or a bad Cause. This would be to subject Reason to Force, and to apply a Penalty where there is no Crime. Law is right Reason, commanding Things that are good, and forbibbing Things that are bad ; it is a Distinction and Declaration of Things just and unjust, and of the Penalties or Advantages annex'd to them.

The Violation therfore of Law does not constitute a Crime where the Law, is a Crime even Violation of what ought to be Law, is a Crime even where there is no Law. The Essence of Right and Wrong, does not depend upon Words and Clauses inferted in a Code, or a Statute Book, much less upon the Conclusions and Explications of Lawyers; but upon the Reason and Nature of Things, antecedent to all laws. In all Laws. In all Countries, Reason is or ought to be consulted, before Laws are enacted; and they are always worse than none, where it is not consulted Reason is in some Degree given to all Men; and Cicero says, that whoever has Reason, has right Reason; that Virtue is but Perfect Reason; and that all Nations having Reason for their Guide, all Nations are capable of arriving at Virtue.

From this Reasoning of his, it would follow, that every People are capable of making Laws, and good Laws; and that Laws, where they are bad, are gained by Corruption, Faction, Fear, or Surprise; and are rather their Misfortune, than the Effect of their Folly. The Acts of Cafar were confirmed by The Senate and the People; but the Senate was aw'd, and the Tribunes and People were bribed: Arms and Money procured him a Law to declare him Lawless. But as the most pompous Power can never unsettle the everlasting Land-Marks between Good and Evil, no more than those between Pleasure and Pain; Casar remained still a Rebel to his Country, and his Acts remained wicked and Trannical.

Let this stand for an Instance, that Laws are not always the measure of Right or Wrong. And as positive laws often speak when the Law of Nature is silent, the Law of Nature sometimes speaks when positive Laws say nothing---neq; Opinione, sed natura constitum effe Jus. That brave Roman, Horatius Cocles was bound by no written Law to, defend the wooden Bridge, over the Tiber, against a whole Army of Tuscons; nor was there any Law, that I know of, in Rome, against Adultery, when the younger Tarquin ravish'd Lucretia: And yet the Virtue of Huratus was justly rewarded, and the Vileness of Tarquin justly punished by the Romans.

Every Man should do'all the Good and prevent all the Evil be can. This is the Voice of the Law of Nature and all Men would be happy by it, if all Men would but Practice it.

The two great Laws of Humane Society from whence all the rest derive their course and Obliga-

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tion are those of Equity and Self-Preservation: By the First, all Men are bound alike not to hurt one another; and by the Second, Men have a Right to defend themselves: Nam fure boc evenit ut quod quisq; ob tutelum corporis suis secerit, jure secisse existemetur, says the Civil Law ; that is, it is a "Maxim of the Law, that whatever we do in the Way, and for the Ends of Self defence, we lawfully "do"; all the Laws of Society are entirely reciprocal, and no man ought to be exempt from their Force; and whoever violates this primary Law of Nature, ought by the Law of Nature to be destroyed. He who observes no Law, forfeits all Title to the Protection of Law. It is Wickedness not to destroy a Destroyer; and all the ill Consequence of Self-defence are chargeable upon him who occasion'd them.

Many Mischiefs are prevented, by destroying One who shews a certain Disposition to commit many. To allow a License to any Man to do Evil with Impunity, is to make Vice triumph over Virtue, and Innocence the Prey of the Guilty. If Men are oblig'd to bear great and publick Evils, when they can upon better Terms oppose and remove them; they are oblig'd by the same Logick, to bear the total Destruction of Mankind. If any Man may destroy whom he pleases without Refistance, he may extingish human Race without Resistance. For, if you settle the Bounds of Resictance, you allow it; and if you do not fix its Bounds, you leave Property at the Mercy of Rapine, and Life in the Hands of Cruelty.

It is that the Doctrine of Resistance would destroy the Peace of the World: But it May be more truly said, that the contrary Doctrine would destroy the World it self, as it has already some of the best Countries in it. I must indeed own that if one Man may destroy all, there would be great and lasting Peace, When no Body was left to break it. The Law of Nature does not only allow us, but oblige us to defend our selves. It is our Duty, not only to our selves, but to the Society; Vitam tibi ipsi si negas, says, Seneea: If we suffer tamely a law- less Attack upon our Property and Fortunes, we en- courage it, and involve others in our Doom. And Cicero says, "He who does not resist Mischief when he may, guilty of the same Crime as if he desert- ed his Parents, his Friends and his Country.

So that the Conduct of Men, who when they are ill treated, use Words rather than Arms, and practise Submission rather than Refistance, is owing to a pru- dential Cause, because there is hazard in Quarrels and War, and Their Cafe may be made worse by an Endeaavour to mend it; and not to any Confession of Right in those that do wrong. When Men begin to be wicked, we connot tell where their Wickedness will end; and we have Reason to fear the worst, and provide against it.

Such is the Provision made by Law: They are Checks upon the unruly and Partiaal Appetites of Men,and intended for Terror and Protection. But as there are already Laws snifficient, every where, to pretence Peace between private Particulars, the great Difficulty has hitherto been to find Proper Checks for those who were to check and administer the Laws. To settle therefore a thorough Imparti- ality in the Laws, both as to their End and Execu- tion, is a Talf worthy of human Wisdom, as it would be the Cause and Standard of Civil Felicity. In the Theory, nothing is more easle than this Task; and yet who is able to perform it, if they who can will not.

New-Haven, May 1, A violent Fever has lately carried off a considerable Number of People here and at Fairfield. The Beginning of last Week an Indian of this Place fell Head-foremost into a wall, where he soon died. On Saturday last, last, Jeremiah Atwater, John Sampson, and John Howard of this Town, Peleg Heath, Son to Capt. Heath of Roxbury, and Samuel Peck of Wallingford, went on board one Capt. Pitman, who lay about 5 Miles from the Town; and their Business being done, about half an Hour before Sun-set they left the Vessel. About Dusk, when they were about a Mile fom the Town,

 

a sudden Gust of wind with a high Sea, overset the Boat, which sunk about two Foot under Water. Soon after (it happening to be Tide of Ebb) they were left bare upon a Breaaker; but the waves dash- ing over them very much bruised their Bodies, in- somuch that Howard dy'd with the Hardships. At last, Mr. Atwater (being a good Swimmer) stript himself, and after two Attempts, swam on shore, who acquainting the Neighbours with the Distress of those yet living, they immediately went and brought them to Town with just Life enough to speak, and having put them to Bed, 'tis hop'd they will all recover. They were above 7 Hours in the Water.

Boston, May 14.
On Tuesday last a Singing Lecture was held at Dorchester, by a Society of that Place for promoting Regular Singing in the Worship of God. The Rev. Mr. Danforth preach'd an excellent Sermon on that Occasion, from the 16th of the 25th and 26th Verses. The singing was Perform'd in Three Parts, by about 100 Persons, many of whom went from Boston and Cambrige to assist the society in that Part of Divine Worship.

We hear from the Eastward, that two Women have lately murder'd their Bastard Children, one at Salem, the other at Hampton. Tis said several Persons are ill of the Small Pox at Seaconk.

They write from New-York, That Capt. Hoskins, who arriv'd there the 20th of April last, brought with him two Clergymen of the Church of England, sent by the Society for Propagation of the Gospel, one for Stradford in Connecticut, and the other for New-Bristrol in New-England. The some Letters add, That the Hector Man [Illegible] taken a Pyrate Brigantine, and carried her into Nevis. Custom House Boston, [Illegible] Inwards. Thomas Verier, William Pride and Daniel Jackson from New Hampshire, Samuel Butler from Newport Daniel Wair from Connecticut, Thomas Davis from Long Island, Samuel Broadhurst from New York, Jo- seph Kidder from Virginia. Thomas Lillv from North Carolina, William Webber and George Gibbs from Antigua, Lemuel Drew from Jaimaca. Richard Waterhouse from St. George.

Cleared Out.

William Green for Newport and Connecticut, Arnout Schermerhoorn, and Samuel Broadhurst for New- York, John Alden for Annapolis, John Trowbridge and John Alden for South Carolina, William Fletcher Richard Murphey, William Dunwell, Francis Bignal, and Thomas Forster for West Indies, Philip Viscount for Surranam, Francis Baker for Amsterdam, Nathaniel Breed for Great Britain, George Meede for London.

Cleared Out.

Thomas Sturgis and Issac Freeman for Connecticut, William Carsey and Stephen Walker for Newfound- land, James Nichols for North Carolina, John Rich- ards and Richard Pitcher for West Indies, Elias Wait for Philadelphia.

[We shall give our Readers their Portion of Foreign News in our Next.]

ADVERTISEMENTS

All Person indebted to the Estate of Mr. Richard Pullen, late of Boston, Innholder, deceas'd are hereby desired and required forthworth to pay in their respective Debts, unto Mrs. Ellinor Pullen, Widow, Administratrix to said Estate, As they would avoid further Trouble: And all Persons to whom the Said Estate is indebted, are hereby notified to bring in their being paid.

To be by publick Vendue on Tuesday the 29th Instant. at Three of the Clock in the Afternoon, at the Sun-Tavern on Dock-Square, a Valuable Collection of Books, being the Library of Thomas Newton Efq; deceas'd; with Sundry other valuable Books added to them.

Just publish'd:

The original Rights of Mankind freely to subdue and improve this Earth, Asserted and maintained. By J. M: Sold by B. Eliot and J. Edwards at their Shops near the Change. B.----Subjoins to the above Advertisement the following Lines

Old Stories tell bow Hercules did slay the Dragon at Lern-a, With fourteen Heads and fifteen Eyes, to see and will discern.


BOSTON: Printed and Sold by J. Franklin in Queen-Street, over against Mr. Sheaf's School, where Advertisements and Letters are taken in. Advertisements are likewise taken in by J. Edwards at the Corner Shop on the North Side of the Town-House. Price 6 d. Single, or s. a Year.

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