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Ancient Rome

6e. Gladiators, Chariots, and the Roman Games

Two men ready their weapons. An excited crowd of Romans cheer loudly in anticipation. Both combatants realize full well that this day might be their last. They are gladiators, men who fight to the death for the enjoyment of others.

As the two gladiators circle each other, each knows that his objective is to maim or trap his opponent rather than to kill him quickly. What's more, the fight must last long enough to please the crowd.

The gladiators jab swords and swing maces. They sweat in the hot sun. Sand and dirt fly. Suddenly, one gladiator traps the other with a net and poises to kill him with a three-pronged trident. The victor waits for a sign from the crowd. If the losing gladiator has put up a good fight, the crowd might choose to spare his life — and the vanquished gladiator will live to fight another day. But if the crowd is dissatisfied with the losing fighter — as was usually the case — its dissatisfaction meant slaughter.

In ancient Rome, death had become a form of entertainment.

Let the Games Begin

Gladiators
Before fighting, gladiators had to swear the following oath: "I will endure to be burned, to be bound, to be beaten, and to be killed by the sword."

The Etruscans of northern Italy originally held public games, (ludi), which featured such events as gladiator battles and chariot races, as a sacrifice to the gods.

The Romans continued the practice, holding games roughly 10 to 12 times in an average year. Paid for by the emperor, the games were used to keep the poor and unemployed entertained and occupied. The emperor hoped to distract the poor from their poverty in the hopes that they would not revolt.

Over time, the games became more spectacular and elaborate as emperors felt compelled to outdo the previous year's competitons. The games involved more participants, occurred more frequently, and became more expensive and more outlandish.

The Coliseum

In Rome, the gladiatorial contests were held in the Coliseum, a huge stadium that first opened in 80 C.E. Located in the middle of the city, the Coliseum was circular in shape with three levels of arches around the outside. In height, the Coliseum was as tall as a modern 12-story building; it held 50,000 spectators.

Like many modern professional sports stadiums, the Coliseum had box seats for the wealthy and powerful. The upper level was reserved for the commoners. Under the floor of the Coliseum was a labyrinth of rooms, hallways, and cages where weapons were stored and animals and gladiators waited for their turn to perform.

The Coliseum was also watertight and could be flooded to hold naval battles. Special drains allowed water to be pumped in and released. But, naval battles were rarely held there because the water caused serious damage to the basic structure of the Coliseum.

Amphitheater
The Coliseum wasn't the only amphitheater in ancient Rome; there were several scattered throughout the entire empire. The amphitheater pictured above is in Tunisia, Africa.

The gladiators themselves were usually slaves, criminals, or prisoners of war. Occasionally, the gladiators were able to fight for their freedom. Criminals who were sentenced to death were sometimes thrown into the arena unarmed to serve their sentence. Some people, including women, actually volunteered to be gladiators.

They were willing to risk death for the possibility of fame and glory. Many gladiators went to special schools that trained them how to fight. A few gladiators boxed. They used metal gloves to increase cutting and bleeding.

Some gladiatorial contests included animals such as bears, rhinos, tigers, elephants, and giraffes. Most often, hungry animals fought other hungry animals. But sometimes hungry animals fought against gladiators in contests called venationes ("wild beast hunts"). On rare occasions, the animals were allowed to maul and eat a live human who was tied to a stake.

Chariot races
This relief sculpture from the 2nd century C.E. illustrates what a chariot race in the Circus Maximus might have looked like. The competitors completed seven intense laps in front of a crowd of 300,000.

Bread and Circuses

Romans loved chariot races, which were held on special racetracks called circuses. The most famous circus, which was in Rome, was the Circus Maximus. In chariot races, two- or four-horse chariots ran seven laps totaling anywhere from three to five miles.

Roman games included other type of equestrian events. Some races with horses and riders resemble today's thoroughbred horseracing. In one type of race, riders began the competition on horseback but later dismounted and ran on foot to the finish.

As the Roman Empire started its decline, the author Juvenal (55-127 C.E.) noted, "The people are only anxious for two things: bread and circuses."
On the Web
The Games
Gladiatorial games were originally held as funeral games to appease the souls of the dead with blood. Eventually, they grew into the huge events that most people think of when they hear the word "gladiator." But gladiatorial games weren't the only form of entertainment. The Romans also enjoyed chariot races, naval battles, wild animal hunts, and theatrical events. This webpage also describes those activites, the public executions that took place in the arenas, and some of the disasters that struck during the games.
Arena: Gladiatorial Games
A gladiator's a gladiator, right? Wrong! A gladiator could specialize as a thracian, secutor, retiarius, or bestiarius; each category of gladiator had its own unique armor, weapons, and fighting style. This webpage, done by a college professor, points out the differences among the different types of gladiators and describes their weapons and armor in great detail. Be sure to click on the underlined words and phrases in the text for extra images.
Roman Gladiatorial Games
A classics professor at Brooklyn College has put together this terrific website on the gladiatorial games. The topics include the origins of the games, the characteristics of the gladiators, the politics surrounding the games, the amphitheaters, and descriptions of the different events.
Throwing Christians to the Lions: Fact and Legend
The Roman arenas weren't used only for gladiatorial combats and chariot races. Sometimes, people sentenced to an agonizing public death were thrown into the amphitheater to be killed by wild animals. Christians were often the victims of this terrible fate. The polytheistic Romans had a hard time understanding the monotheistic nature of Christianity, and often persecuted the followers of the Christian faith. Read more about the history of Christian persecution from the time of Nero in 64 C.E. to Constantine's reign in the 4th century C.E.
The Romans
This comprehensive website contains information on just about every aspect of Roman life. From travel to technology, and from farming to famous people, this site has it covered. Great illustrations and fabulous photographs accompany each article.
Roman Entertainment
Chariot racing was extremely dangerous, and drivers were often severely or even fatally injured. Read more about the races in this article on Roman entertainment, which also discusses gladiatorial combats, theater, and music.
Romeguide: The Circus Maximus
Built in the 6th century B.C.E., the Circus Maximus could seat as many as 300,000 spectators and was used primarily for chariot racing. It experienced its share of disasters during the 1,000 years it was in use — it was destroyed by fire twice, and on a few occasions the stands collapsed and killed many people in the audience. This brief but informative webpage offers some interesting facts about one of the most famous amphitheaters in the Roman Empire.
Ludi Romani: The Public Games
The Ludi, or public games, were a source of entertainment for ancient Romans. From the drama of theater plays to the brutality of gladiatorial combat, the Ludi grew in popularity until it was said that the Roman people sought only two things: "bread and circus."
The Romans
An Exceptional Roman Website for Videos, information, images, games, quizzes and facts on Roman life.
http://www.romeguide.it/MONUM/ARCHEOL/ccircus_maximus/circus.htm
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http://www.roman-empire.net/society/soc-games.html
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http://www.ur.ku.edu/News/97N/SepNews/Sept29/thumbs.html
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