• Broadbent and Phillips, Albumen silver print, c. 1871, National Portrait Gallery
  • John Tenniel 1863, Historical Society of Pennsylvania
  • Henry Lewis Stephens watercolor (c. 1863), Library of Congress
  • David Bustill Bowser (artist, Philadelphia) 1863, Library of Congress
  • United States Colored Troop (USCT) soldier and his family1863, Library of Congress
  • Minutes of the Second Annual Pennsylvania Equal Right League 1866, Historical Society of Pennsylvania
  • Thomas Nast, Patience on a Monument 1868, Historical Society of Pennsylvania  Learn more.
  • National Negro Convention Meeting February 1869, Harpers Weekly
  • Thomas Kelly print 1870, Library of Congress
  • O.V. Catto Elk Lodge Members with then Councilman Jim Kenney, 2007


During the socially and politically fraught years in the United States before the American Civil War and through early Reconstruction in the United States, emerged an extraordinary young black man, Octavius Valentine Catto in Philadelphia. He was seen as "the most magnetic and promising leader that the Philadelphia black community had yet produced." Then on October 10, 1871, Catto was murdered on the streets of Philadelphia along with four other black men and where many other blacks were shot and beaten in an election day riot aimed to suppress the black vote.