Life of Benjamin Franklin
A Continuation of Franklin's Autobiography
by Jared Sparks
A Continuation of Franklin's Autobiography
by Jared Sparks
- CHAPTER I.State of Affairs in Pennsylvania. Defects of the Government. Legislation. Conduct of the Proprietaries. Object of Franklin's Agency in England. Collinson, Miss Stevenson, Strahan, Governor Shirley Beccaria, Mussehenbroek. Franklin's Interview with the Proprietaries. He causes a Letter to be published respecting Pennsylvania. Delays in his public Business. He travels in various Parts of England. Visits the Place in which his Ancestors were born. Forms an Acquaintance with Baskerville. Publishes the "Historical Review of Pennsylvania." Authorship of that Work.
- CHAPTER II.Franklin advises the Conquest of Canada. His Scheme adopted by the Ministry. Journey to Scotland. Lord Kames, Robertson, Hume. "Parable against Persecution." First published by Lord Kames. How far Franklin claimed to be its Author. His Mission brought to a favorable Termination. Lord Mansfield's Agency in the Affair. Franklin's Sentiments in Regard to Canada. Writes a Pamphlet to show that it ought to be retained at the Peace. Tour to the North of England. Receives Public Money for Pennsylvania. Tour in Holland. Experiments to prove the Electrical Properties of the Tourmalin. Cold produced by Evaporation. Ingenious Theory for explaining the Causes of Northeast Storms. Invents a Musical Instrument called the Armonica. His Son appointed Governor of New Jersey. Returns to America.
- CHAPTER III.Receives the Thanks of the Assembly. Tour through the Middle and Eastern Colonies. Engages again in Public Affairs. Massacre of Indians in Lancaster. Franklin's Pamphlet on the Subject, and his; Agency in pacifying the Insurgents. Colonel Bouquet's Account of his Public Services. Disputes revived between the Governor and the Assembly. Militia Bill defeated. The Governor rejects a Bill in which the Proprietary, Estates are taxed. The Assembly resolve to petition the King for a Change of Government. Petition drafted by Franklin. Chosen Speaker of the Assembly. Norris, Dickinson, Galloway. Scheme for Stamp Duties opposed by the Assembly. Franklin is not elected to the Assembly. Appointed Agent to the Court of Great Britain. Sails for England.
- CHAPTER IV.Origin of the Stamp Act. Franklin's Opposition to it. His Remarks on the Passage of the Act; in a Letter to Charles Thomson. False Charges against him in Relation to this Subject. Dean Tucker. Effects of the Stamp Act in America. Franklin's Examination before Parliament. Stamp Act repealed. Mr. Pitt. Declaratory Act. American Paper Currency. Franklin's Answer to Lord Hillsborough's Report against it. New Scheme for taxing the Colonies by supplying them with Paper Money. Franklin travels in Holland and Germany. His Ideas of the Nature of the Union between Colonies and Great Britain. Plan of a Colonial Representation in Parliament. Franklin visits Paris. His "Account of the Causes of the American Discontents." Change of Ministry. Lord Hillsborough at the Head of the American Department. Rumor that Dr. Franklin was to have an Office under him.
- CHAPTER V.Dr. Franklin is appointed Agent for Georgia. Causes the "Farmer's Letters" to be republished in London. His Opinion of them. Chosen President of the American Philosopical Society. Promotes the of Culture of Silk in Pennsylvania. Encourages his Countrymen to adhere to their Non-importation Agreements. Journey to France. Appointed Agent for New Jersey. His Answers to Mr. Strahan's Queries. Repeal of some of the American Revenue Acts. Intimations that he would be removed from Office. His Remarks on that Subject. Chosen Agent for the Assembly of Massachusetts. Singular Interview with Lord Hillsborough. Objectionable Footing on which the Colonial Agents were placed by his Lordship. Dr. Franklin makes a Tour through the North of England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. His Reception by Lord Hillsborough in Ireland. Irish Parliament Richard Bache. Bishop of St. Asaph.
- CHAPTER VI.Dr. Franklin meditates a Return to America. Singular Conduct of Lord Hillsborough. Walpole's Grant. Hillsborough's Report against it. Franklin's Reasons for settling a New Colony west of the Alleganies. Interview with Lord Hillsborough at Oxford. Franklin draws up the Report of a Committee appointed to examine the Powder Magazines at Purfleet. Performs new Electrical Experiments. Controversy about Pointed and Blunt Conductors. Lord Dartmouth succeeds Lord Hillsborough. His Character. Franklin's Interview with him. Petitions from the Assembly of Massachusetts. Franklin writes a Preface to the London Edition of the Boston Resolutions; also "Rules for reducing a Great Empire to a Small One," and "An Edict of the King of Prussia." Abridges the Book of Common Prayer. Experiments to show the Effect of Oil in smoothing Waves. Dubourg's Translation of his Writings.
- CHAPTER VII.Hutchinson's Letters. How they first became known to Franklin. His Motives for transmitting them to Massachusetts. Proceedings of the Assembly concerning them. Dr. Cooper's Remarks on that Occasion. Petition for the Removal of Hutchinson and Oliver presented by Franklin. Duet between Temple and Whately. Franklin's Declaration that the Letters had been transmitted by him. Whately commences against him a Chancery Suit. Proceedings of the Privy Council on the Petition. Further Account of those Proceedings. Wedderburn's abusive Speech. The Petition rejected. Franklin dismissed from his Place at the Head of the American Postoffice.
- CHAPTER VIII.Franklin remains in England to await the Result of the Continental Congress. Josiah Quincy, Junior. Anecdotes. Death of Dr. Franklin's Wife. Family Incidents. He receives and presents the Petition of Congress. Rejected by Parliament. Galloway's Plan of Union. Franklin's Attempts to promote a Reconciliation between the two Countries. Visits Lord Chatham. Remarks on Independence. Mrs. Howe. He draws up Articles as the Basis of a Negotiation, at the Request of Dr. Fothergill and Mr. Barclay. These Articles shown to the Ministers, and various Conferences concerning them. Interviews with Lord Howe respecting some Mode of Reconciliation He drafts another Paper for that Purpose. Lord Chatham's Approval of the Proceedings of Congress. Lord Camden. Lord Chatham's Motion in Parliament. Franklin's Interviews with him in forming a Plan of Reconciliation. This Plan offered to Parliament, and rejected. Negotiation resumed and broken off Franklin sails from England and arrives in Philadelphia.
- CHAPTER IX.Chosen a Member of Congress. Proceedings of Congress. Preparations for Military Defence. Petition to the King. Franklin assists in preparing for the Defence of Pennsylvania, as a Member of the Committee of Safety. Drafts a Plan of Confederation. His Services in Congress. Goes to the Camp at Cambridge on a Committee from Congress. Chosen a Member of the Pennsylvania Assembly. Writes Letters to Europe for the Committee of Secret Correspondence. His Journey to Canada as a Commissioner from Congress. Declaration of Independence. Anecdotes. President of the Convention of Pennsylvania for forming a Constitution. His Opinion of a Single Legislative Assembly. Opposes the Practice of voting by States in Congress. His Correspondence with Lord Howe, and Interview with him on Staten Island. Appointed a Commissioner to the Court of Versailles. Lends Money to Congress.
- CHAPTER X.Voyage to France. Arrives at Nantes. Proceeds to Paris, and takes up his Residence at Passy. His Reception in France. Influence of his Name and Character. Pictures, Busts, and Prints of him. Interview with Count de Vergennes. Money obtained from the French Court and Military Supplies sent to the United States. Contract with the Farmers-General. Franklin disapproves the Policy of seeking Alliances with the European Powers. Lord Stormont. Application of Foreign Officers for Employment in the American Army. Lafayette. Reasons why the French delay to enter into a Treaty with the United States. Interview with Count de Vergennes on that Subject. Treaty of Amity and Commerce. Treaty of Alliance. Franklin and the other Commissioners introduced at Court.
- CHAPTER XI.Preparations for War between Prance and England. M. Gerard. Mr. John Adams. Secret Advances made to Dr. Franklin for effecting a Reconciliation between England and the United States. Mr. Hutton. Mr. Pulteney. Mr. Hartley. An Emissary in Disguise. Franklin's personal Friends in Paris. Interview with Voltaire. Franklin appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of France. Machinations of his Enemies to procure his Recall. Mr. Arthur Lee. Mr. Ralph Izard. Visit of Sir William Jones to Paris. Franklin instructs the American Cruisers not to seize Captain Cooks Vessel. Grants Passports to Vessels carrying Supplies to the Moravian Missionaries on the Coast of Labrador. Paul Jones. The Marquis de Lafayette. Paper on the Aurora Borealis. Sir Humphrey Davy. Mr. Vaughan's Edition of Franklin's Political and Miscellaneous Writings.
- CHAPTER XII.A French Army sent to the United States. Lafayette. Northern Powers of Europe combine in Defence of Neutrals. Franklin's Opinion of Privateering. Correspondence between Count de Vergennes and Mr. Adams. Franklin Remarks upon it. Charges against Franklin by his Enemies, examined and refuted. New Attempt in Congress to procure his Recall. Count de Vergennes's Opinion of him as Minister at the French Court. The numerous Duties of his Office. Colonel John Laurens. Franklin proposes to retire from the Public Service. New Propositions for Peace, through the Agency of Mr. Hartley. Franklin's Answer to them. His Friends at Passy and Auteuil. Madame Brillon. Madame Helvetius.
- CHAPTER XIII.Negotiations for Peace. Debates on the Subject in the British Parliament. Change of Ministry. Mr. Oswald sent to Paris to consult Dr. Franklin on the Mode of Negotiating. Grenville's Commission; disapproved by Franklin. Mr. Fox's Views of Independence. Lord Shelburne's Administration. Mr. Fitzherbert. Mr. Oswald commissioned to negotiate the American Treaty. Essential Articles of the Treaty proposed by Franklin. Advisable Articles. Mr. Jay disapproves Mr. Oswald's Commission. An Alteration required and obtained. Progress of the Treaty. Independence, Boundaries, Fisheries. Attempts of the British Ministry to secure the Indemnification of the Loyalists. Mr. Adams joins his Colleagues and resists the British Claims. Franklin proposes an Article for Indemnification the Americans for their Losses during the War. British Claims relinquished. Treaty signed. Ratified by Congress.
- CHAPTER XIV.Treaty signed without the Knowledge of the Court of France, contrary to the Instructions from Congress, and to the Treaty of Alliance. Count de Vergennes's Opinion of the Treaty. Unfounded Suspicions. Rayneval and Marbois. Franklin's Explanation of the Grounds upon which he acted. False Rumor concerning his Exertions in obtaining the Boundaries and Fisheries. If is Financial Contract with Count de Vergennes. Negotiates a Treaty with Sweden. Mr. Hartley. Definitive Treaty of Peace signed. Franklin's Sentiments on this Occasion. Appointed by the King of France one of the Commissioners for investigating the Subject of Animal Magnetism. Negotiations. His Request to be recalled is finally granted by Congress. Mr. Jefferson succeeds him as Minister to France. Treaty with Prussia. Franklin prepares to return Home. Journey from Passay to Havre de Grace. Sails from Southampton and arrives in Philadelphia.
- CHAPTER XV.Receives congratulatory Letters and Addresses. Chosen President of Pennsylvania, and holds the Office three Years. His private Circumstances. Appointed a Delegate to the Convention for framing the Constitution of the United States. His Speeches in the Convention. His Religious Opinions. Extracts from Dr. Cutler's Journal, describing an Interview with him. President of the Society for Political Inquiries. Neglect of Congress to examine and settle his Accounts. Various Pieces written by him during the last Year of his Life. His Illness and Death. Funeral Ceremonies. Tribute of Respect paid to him by Congress and other Public Bodies. Conclusion.
- APPENDIX No. I:
Remarks on the Origin and Genealogy of the Franklin Family.
- APPENDIX No. II:
Journal of a Voyage from London to Philadelphia
- APPENDIX No. III:
Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania
- APPENDIX No. IV:
American Philosophical Society.
- APPENDIX No. V:
Extracts from a Private Journal.
- APPENDIX No. VI:
Extracts from a Private Journal.
- APPENDIX No. VII:
Proceedings of Congress, and of the National Assembly of France, on the Death of Franklin.
- APPENDIX No. VIII:
- APPENDIX No. IX: